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Number One Brasil - Training Book

Honma Tokyo has as a main principle “Beauty with Science”. That is why “Science Principles” are fundamental in the developing of new professional products. Having broad knowledge of the principles and understanding “why” of each specific formula of products will make you able to understand each product’s performance.

Broad knowledge of the hair, which is a primary protein structure, will help you understand the effects of all the different products.

 

HAIR FIBER

 

This illustration shows how the minuscule keratin fibers twist to form the Proto Fibrillae. They turn and twist to form the Micro Fibrillae, which twist again to form the Macro Fibrillae, which is the hair’s cortex basic structure. Very solid cuticle layers then cover the cortex. The nature of this spiral formation gives the human hair an incredible flexibility allowing it to wring and go back to its original shape damage free. The whole comprehension of the hair protein fiber structure will make it easier to understand the effect the protein reconditioning has on the hair.

In other words….

  1. The hair starts at an atom, the smallest particle of the matter.
  2. Such atoms bind by electron sharing to form the molecules and the amino acids.
  3. The amino acids bind by peptide bond forming helices.
  4. These proteins, when parallel to each other, bind side by side. Then the proto fibrillae, micro fibrillae and the macro fibrillae appear forming the fibers of the cortex.
  5. The cuticle protects the whole structure.

 

CUTICLE AND CORTEX – THE HAIR STRUCTURE

The hair is divided into two parts:

  • The cuticle is the external part. Its function is to protect the cortex. They are the flat cells that lay one over another like shingles on a roof.
  • The cortex is the internal part. It gives the hair strength, resistance, elasticity and moisture.

 

CUTICLE

The “non-keratinized intercellular cement”, rich in lipids, binds the scales of cuticle. They give the hair a healthy and natural shine. When the layers of the cuticle become damaged, the hair becomes hardened and shineless. The layers of cuticle are laid one over another resembling a roof and they go from the root toward the tip of the hair.

Chemical or physical abuse may damage the cuticle, weakening the hair structure. These products not only keep the cuticle closed but they also protect against potential oxidation of its coloration.

The adequate use of treatment and conditioners will keep the cuticle laid and sealed, allowing for the light to reflect thus providing a shiny hair.

When the cuticle is damaged, the hair is considered porous. And when most damaged, the highest degree of porousness. Deep damage reach the cortex and cause high porousness and breakage.

When understanding the hair, we better understand the technology behind the products and we become more than hairdressers, we become hair consultants.

As the technology advances and more comprehensive studies about the hair structure are made, nowadays it is possible to care for the hair using very specific products. These products are developed to treat each type and condition of hair and provide long lasting results.

 

 

CORTEX

The cortex is the body of the hair. It represents from 70% to 80% of the whole capillary structure and it is responsible for the hair strength, diameter, elasticity, texture and malleability properties.

 

ACID MANTLE

The hair is protected by the Acid Mantle, which involves the hair from the scalp providing PROTECTION, SMOOTHNESS AND SHINE. The Acid Mantle is composed by:

  • Oils: secreted by the sebaceous glands.
  • Sweat: water and watery solution secreted by the sweat glands.

The Acid Mantle is responsible for keeping the hair’s pH slightly acid, and for this reason, they are fragile.

 

THE  PH – HYDROGEN POTENTIAL

The pH is unit of measure, which indicates if a solution is acid, neutral or alkaline.

In the pH scale, the hair stands between 4.5 – 5.5. Actually, that is not the hair’s pH measure but the Mantle Acid’s which covers and protects the skin, lubricating the scalp and the hair.

Products with a slightly acid pH (between 4.5 – 5.5) are the most recommended because they maintain the integrity of the structure of the hair. The Honma Tokyo Hair Treatment products are formulated within the balanced acid pH (pH 4.5 - 5.5) being therefore compatible with the hair’s natural condition.

The hair is protected by the acid mantle which runs the hair length from the scalp, providing protection, smoothness and shine.

 

POROUSNESS 

It is the hair’s capacity to absorb liquids through the cuticle.

High porousness

  • Curly hair will relax and get color more easily because they are more porous.
  • Porous hair frizz more easily, especially in humid environments.
  • Porous hair are easily identifiable – they have double ends, they are dry, fragile and breakable.

Low porousness 

  • Hair with a compact cuticle is more resistant to absorption and it is not porous.
  • Resistant hair may be thick, straight, white or wavy.
  • Resistant hair need a longer pause in the coloring work and stronger relaxing products.

 

RELATIONSHIP: HAIR AND WATER

Wet hair is heavier than dry hair. That is obvious. However, this simple observation shows an important propriety – the hair is permeable. Regardless if the cuticle and natural oil are protecting the hair, healthy hair can absorb water up to 30% of its own weight. If the hair is damaged, this number may go up to 45%. Length may increase by 2% and diameter by 15%-20%. Regarding cosmetics, this effect is used as a means to make large molecules enter the hair. In general, water is harmful to the hair and it considerably increases the factors that damage the hair. It specifically accentuates the harmful effects of the sun, which is one of the greatest enemies of hair. Melanin degradation is increased and the sun intensifies discoloration. The keratin is altered leaving the hair fragile and damaged. So, while we enjoy the pleasure of letting our hair dry in the sun after a dip in the ocean, it is a true torture for the hair. Because the hair absorbs water in the vapor state in humid environments, it becomes hard to manipulate.

 

HAIR COMPOSITION

Initially, skin and hair products were made with a base of fat, oils and waxes which waterproofed its surfaces. They provided plenty of shine and smoothness but they did not strengthen the internal structure of the hair nor the skin. The problem was temporarily masked because they, indeed, did not treat them. In time, studies about the structure of the hair led to the following composition:

INGREDIENTS

%

ACTION

PROTEINS

70-80%

PROVIDE STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE

WATER

10-15%

FLEXIBILITY

LIPIDS

3-6%

KEEP THE HAIR SMOOT

PIGMENTS

1%

COLOR

MINERAL CARBOHYDRATES

0,05-0,5% 0,1-0,5%

ATTRACT AND MAKE PROTEINS BIND,
INTERCELLULAR CEMENT THAT MIXES HUMIDITY AND THE PROTEINS

 

 

THE HAIR

The hair is a very strong, resistant and shapeable material. This easy of shaping allows us alter its appearance in different manners, either temporarily or even permanently.

  • The hair is formed by protein
  • 1 protein = 50 amino acids
  • Keratin – protein which forms the hair

 

FACTORS THAT DAMAGE THE HAIR

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

  • Pollution: deposit harmful substances.
  • Sun rays: intercellular cement deterioration.

CHEMICAL FACTORS

  • Color, perming, relaxing, bleaching, and inadequate or excessive use of aggressive shampoos, which weaken the structure.

MECHANICAL FACTORS

  • Styling tools: dryers, curl shapers, piaster.
  • Clips, buckles, brades.
  • Inadequate drying: no thermal protector.

PSYCHOPHYSICAL FACTORS

  • Stress: biological changes in the body (elements deficit).
  • Smoking: harmful substances affect hair nutrition.
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